Impact of Androgens

Researchers who study the influence of hormones on behavior have the greatest difficulty in associating testosterone with any human behaviors whatsoever. They have injected all kinds of animals at all stages of development with synthetic testosterone to see how it affected their behavior. They have juggled the naturally occurring estrogens and androgens to see whether […]

Effect of Estrogen plus Progestin on Quality of Life

In the recently published analysis of the effects of estrogen plus progestin on health-related quality of life (QOL) in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), the authors concluded that this therapy did not have a clinically meaningful effect.1 However, caution is warranted in interpreting the findings of this analysis. The study design has several limitations that […]

Women and the Role of Estrogen

Estrogen seems to be as good for women as testosterone is bad for men. It makes women feel great and it doesn’t cost them anything. Adult females make it themselves out of cholesterol converted by their gonads and their adrenal cortex first into progesterone, then into testosterone and then into estrogen. The ovaries carry on […]